Most dogs, regardless of size and breed, are capable of inflicting injury on people if not handled responsibly by their owners. Even cats can scratch or bite. Pet owners need to be alert to any danger, especially around children. Pets carry health risks for some people. While there are some diseases that can be transmitted from cats and dogs to their human handlers, allergies are the most common health risk of pet ownership.
If you or a family member has been diagnosed with a pet allergy, carefully consider whether you can live with the symptoms before committing to pet ownership. Also consider that some friends or relatives with allergies may no longer be able to visit your home if you have a pet. If you have a specific breed of dog in mind, you can look for a rescue group that caters to that breed or seek out a reputable breeder. Mixed breed dogs usually have fewer health problems than their purebred cousins, often have better dispositions, and tend to adapt more easily to a new home.
Whether mixed breed or a purebred, dogs and cats adopted from a shelter or rescue group make excellent pets. For the most part, a pet ends up in a shelter through no fault of his own. If any shelter or rescue animal exhibits aggressive behavior, he is typically euthanized rather than offered for adoption. Rescue groups try to find suitable homes for unwanted or abandoned dogs and cats, many taken from shelters where they would otherwise have been euthanized.
Volunteers usually take care of the animals until they can find a permanent home. Puppy mills are like dog-making factories where the mother dogs spend their entire lives in cramped cages or kennels with little or no personal attention or quality of life. When the mother and father dogs can no longer breed, they are discarded or killed.
Help stop this cycle of cruelty simply by choosing to adopt your next pet from a shelter or rescue group, or by purchasing a dog only from a responsible breeder who will show you where your puppy was born and raised. Even short periods spent with a dog or cat can benefit both you and the animal. Most animal shelters or rescue groups welcome volunteers to help care for homeless pets or assist at adoption events. Dogs and cats that are available for adoption can be rented out for walks or play dates. You can also foster an animal temporarily until a permanent home is found for him, or to decide if the animal is right for you.
During these visits, people are invited to pet and stroke the animals, which can improve mood and reduce stress and anxiety. National Institutes of Health. The Pets for the Elderly Foundation. Blue Cross for Pets. Get a dog, lose weight A number of studies have linked owning a dog to losing weight: A year-long study at the Wellness Institute at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago found that walking an overweight dog helped both the animals and their owners shed unwanted pounds.
Researchers found that the dogs provided support in similar ways to a human exercise buddy, but with greater consistency and without any negative influence. Another study by the Research Center for Human-Animal Interaction found that public housing residents who walked therapy dogs for up to 20 minutes five days a week lost an average of A third study, conducted by dog food manufacturer Mars Petcare, found that people with a dog walked 30 minutes more per week than they did before owning a dog. Pets can provide a source of positive, nonverbal communication.
Pets can help ease the stress of caregivers. Children with learning disorders and other challenges Some children with autism or other learning difficulties are better able to interact with pets than people.
Pets can help children with learning disabilities learn how to regulate stress and calm themselves, making them better equipped to overcome the challenges of their disorder. Playing and exercising with a dog or cat can help a child with learning disorders stay alert and attentive throughout the day. It can also be a great antidote to stress and frustration caused by the learning disability. However, the implications of De Saussure's results for theories of plant nutrition were neither clearly discussed nor easily understood.
Liebig reaffirmed the importance of De Saussures' findings, and used them to critique humus theories, while regretting the limitations of De Saussure's experimental techniques. Using more precise methods of measurement as a basis for estimation, he pointed out contradictions such as the inability of existing soil humus to provide enough carbon to support the plants growing in it. In his theory of mineral nutrients, Liebig identified the chemical elements of nitrogen N , phosphorus P , and potassium K as essential to plant growth.
He reported that plants acquire carbon C and hydrogen H from the atmosphere and from water H 2 O. In addition to emphasizing the importance of minerals in the soil, he argued that plants feed on nitrogen compounds derived from the air. This assertion was a source of contention for many years, and turned out to be true for legumes, but not for other plants. Liebig also popularized Carl Sprengel's "theorem of minimum" known as the law of the minimum , stating that plant growth is not determined by the total resources available, but by the scarcest available resource.http://phon-er.com/js/sony/latest-smartphones-coming-soon-in-india.php
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A plant's development is limited by the one essential mineral that is in the relatively shortest supply. This concept of limitation can be visualized as "Liebig's barrel", a metaphorical barrel in which each stave represents a different element. A nutrient stave that is shorter than the others will cause the liquid contained in the barrel to spill out at that level.
This is a qualitative version of the principles used for determining the application of fertilizer in modern agriculture. Organic Chemistry was not intended as a guide to practical agriculture. Liebig's lack of experience in practical applications, and differences between editions of the book, fueled considerable criticism. Nonetheless, Liebig's writings had a profound impact on agriculture, spurring experiment and theoretical debate in Germany, England, and France.
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One of his most recognized accomplishments is the development of nitrogen-based fertilizer. In the first two editions of his book , , Liebig reported that the atmosphere contained insufficient nitrogen, and argued that nitrogen-based fertilizer was needed to grow the healthiest possible crops. He later became convinced that nitrogen was sufficiently supplied by precipitation of ammonia from the atmosphere, and argued vehemently against the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers for many years. An early commercial attempt to produce his own fertilizers was unsuccessful, due to lack of testing in actual agricultural conditions, and to lack of nitrogen in the mixtures.
Liebig's difficulties in reconciling theory and practice reflected that the real world of agriculture was more complex than was at first realized. By the publication of the seventh German edition of Agricultural Chemistry he had moderated some of his views, admitting some mistakes and returning to the position that nitrogen-based fertilizers were beneficial or even necessary.
Nitrogen fertilizers are now widely used throughout the world, and their production is a substantial segment of the chemical industry. Liebig's work on applying chemistry to plant and animal physiology was especially influential. Liebig saw similarities between plant and animal metabolism, and suggested that nitrogenous animal matter was similar to, and derived from, plant matter. He categorized foodstuffs into two groups, nitrogenous materials which he believed were used to build animal tissue, and non-nitrogenous materials which he believed were involved in separate processes of respiration and generation of heat.
French researchers such as Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Jean-Baptiste Boussingault believed that animals assimilated sugars, proteins, and fats from plant materials and lacked the ability to synthesize them. Liebig's work suggested a common ability of plants and animals to synthesize complex molecules from simpler ones. His experiments on fat metabolism convinced him that animals must be able to synthesize fats from sugars and starches. Liebig also studied respiration, at one point measuring the "ingesta and excreta" of soldiers, a bodyguard of the Grand Duke of Hessen-Darmstadt, for an entire month.
Berzelius stingingly stated that "this facile kind of physiological chemistry is created at the writing table". The third and last edition of Animal Chemistry was substantially revised and did not include the equations. The third area discussed in Animal Chemistry was fermentation and putrefaction. Liebig proposed chemical explanations for processes such as eremacausis organic decomposition , describing the rearrangement of atoms as a result of unstable "affinities" reacting to external causes such as air or already decaying substances.
He presented a view of disease in terms of chemical process, in which healthy blood could be attacked by external contagia; secreting organs sought to transform and excrete such substances; and failure to do so could lead to their elimination through the skin, lungs, and other organs, potentially spreading contagion.
Again, although the world was much more complicated than his theory, and many of his individual ideas were later proved wrong, Liebig managed to synthesize existing knowledge in a way that had significant implications for doctors, sanitarians, and social reformers. The English medical journal The Lancet reviewed Liebig's work and translated his chemical lectures as part of its mission to establish a new era of medicine. In , Liebig investigated spontaneous human combustion , dismissing the simplistic explanations based on ethanol due to alcoholism.
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Liebig drew upon his work in plant nutrition and plant and animal metabolism to develop a theory of nutrition, which had significant implications for cookery. In his Researches on the Chemistry of Food Liebig argued that eating not only meat fibre, but also meat juices, which contained various inorganic chemicals, was important. These vital ingredients would be lost during conventional boiling or roasting in which cooking liquids were discarded. For optimum nutritional quality, Liebig advised that cooks should either sear the meat initially to retain fluids, or retain and use cooking liquids as in soups or stews.
Liebig was acclaimed in The Lancet for revealing "the true principles of cookery", and physicians promoted "rational diets" based on his ideas. Well-known British cookery writer Eliza Acton responded to Liebig by modifying the cookery techniques in the third edition of her Modern Cookery for Private Families , and subtitling the edition accordingly.
Building on his theories of the nutritional value of meat fluids, and seeking an inexpensive nutrition source for Europe's poor, Liebig developed a formula for producing beef extract. The details were published in so that "the benefit of it should Production was not economically feasible in Europe, where meat was expensive, but in Uruguay and New South Wales, meat was an inexpensive byproduct of the leather industry.
Other companies also attempted to market meat extracts under the name "Liebig's Extract of Meat". In Britain, a competitor's right to use the name was successfully defended on the grounds that the name had fallen into general use and become a generic term before the creation of any particular company. Liebig's company initially promoted their "meat tea" for its curative powers and nutritional value as a cheap, nutritious alternative to real meat.
After claims of its nutritional value were questioned, they emphasized its convenience and flavour, marketing it as a comfort food. German cookery writer Henriette Davidis wrote recipes for Improved and Economic Cookery and other cookbooks. Hannah M. Colorful calendars and trading cards were also marketed to popularize the product. The company also worked with British chemist Henry Enfield Roscoe to develop a related product, which it registered some years after Liebig's death, under the " Oxo " trademark.
Oxo was trademarked worldwide in and in the United Kingdom in Originally a liquid, Oxo was released in cubed solid form in Liebig studied other foods, as well. He promoted the use of baking powder to make lighter bread, studied the chemistry of coffee-making, and developed a breast-milk substitute for babies who could not suckle. Liebig founded the journal Annalen der Chemie , which he edited from Originally titled Annalen der Pharmacie , it became Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie to more accurately reflect its content.
Liebig published widely in Liebigs Annalen and elsewhere, in newspapers and journals. Some of his most influential titles include:. In addition to books and articles, he wrote thousands of letters, most of them to other scientists. Through Liebig's close friendship with the Vieweg family publishing house, he arranged for his former student Jacob Schiel — to translate Mill's important work for German publication. Liebig liked Mill's Logic in part because it promoted science as a means to social and political progress, but also because Mill featured several examples of Liebig's research as an ideal for the scientific method.
In this way, he sought to reform politics in the German states.
He also became scientific advisor to King Maxilimian II, who hoped to transform the University of Munich into a center for scientific research and development. His new accommodations in Munich reflected this shift in focus. They included a comfortable house suitable for extensive entertaining, a small laboratory, and a newly built lecture theatre capable of holding people with a demonstration laboratory at the front. There, he gave lectures to the university and fortnightly to the public.
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